The Capital Market Line (CML) and Security Market Line (SML) are two important concepts in finance that are used to assess the risk and return of investment portfolios. While standard deviation is the measure of risk in CML, Beta coefficient determines the risk factors of the SML. (d) Portfolios that plot on the CML must only be comprised of the risk free security and the market portfolio. (iii) All fairly priced stocks that plot on the Capital Market Line (CML) have zero idiosyncratic risk. Security Market Line shows the relationship between the required return on individual security as a function of systematic, non-diversifiable risk.

Around seven mutual funds listed in the Nepal stock exchange trade (NEPSE). This paper focused on evaluating the performance of five mutual funds of NEPSE on the basis of monthly returns compared to benchmark return. However, few mutual funds are well diversified and have reduced its unique risk. We have considered Market Portfolio in the image as the Optimal Portfolio. CML is used to see a specific portfolio’s rate of return while the SML shows a market risk and a given time’s return. The CML is the combination of all portfolios for which the sharpe ratio is maximized (i.e. the risk-adjusted excess return is the largest).

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(ii) All stocks that plot above the Security Market Line (SML) are overpriced. (i) All stocks that plot on the Security Market Line (SML) are fairly priced. Functions based on the normal distribution are easy to retrieve in code or excel, so we do not really need z tables anymore, in practice. Because the popular exam calculators (TI BA II+ and HP 12c) do not include z table functionality… Professionals who use our services are able to pass the FRM exam at a highly successful rate. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge that you have read and understand our privacy policy and code of conduct.

The overall level of risk is measured by the beta of the security against the market level of risk. (c) Any portfolio comprised of the market portfolio and risk free security has zero idiosyncratic variance. In equilibrium, all securities and portfolios (i.e. convex combinations of securities) lie on the SML, which plots expected return as a function of beta. Note that outside of equilibrium, if a security was undervalued, it would lie above the SML and vice versa. In this post I address one common question students have about the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Under the standard assumptions and in the presence of a risk free investment, the capital asset pricing model can be described using two equations.

## How Is Capital Allocation Line (CAL) Related to CML?

Individual investors will either hold just the risk-free asset or some combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio, depending on their risk-aversion. (d) The portfolios on the CML with a return above ##r_f## have maximum return for any given level of risk. The similarities between the CML and SML as models of the risk-return tradeoff are that both are a graphical representation of risk-return… Thus, the slope of the CML is the Sharpe ratio of the market portfolio.

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The tangency point is the optimal portfolio of risky assets, known as the market portfolio. Once the optimal portfolio is determined, the investor can use CML to plot the expected return and risk of the efficient portfolio. CML is a straight line that connects the risk-free rate of return to the optimal portfolio of risky assets, where the portfolio’s expected return is maximized for a given level of risk. The capital market line (CML) represents portfolios that optimally combine risk and return. It is a theoretical concept that represents all the portfolios that optimally combine the risk-free rate of return and the market portfolio of risky assets. Numerous techniques exist for demonstrating the logical relationship that exists between the Capital Market Line (CML) and the Security Market Line (SML).

The intercept point of CML and efficient frontier would result in the most efficient portfolio, called the tangency portfolio. Portfolios that fall on the capital market line (CML), in theory, optimize the risk/return relationship, thereby maximizing performance. The efficient frontier consists of all efficient portfolios, i.e. all portfolios that yield the maximum expected return given their standard deviation of return.

## Are CML and Security Market Line (SML) the Same?

Where the market portfolio and risk free assets are determined by the CML, all security factors are determined by the SML. Unlike the Capital Market Line, the Security Market Line shows the expected returns of individual assets. The CML determines the risk or return for efficient portfolios, and the SML demonstrates the risk or return for individual stocks. The portfolios with the best trade-off between expected returns and variance (risk) lie on this line.

- Therefore every portfolio plots on the SML because every security plots on SML.
- Our results show that there is no meaningful relationship between betas and risk premiums; therefore CAPM is not valid in ISE over the sample period.
- According to Tobin’s separation theorem, finding the market portfolio and the best combination of that market portfolio and the risk-free asset are separate problems.
- Fair-priced securities are always plotted on the SML and CML.
- Unlike the Capital Market Line, the Security Market Line shows the expected returns of individual assets.
- (a) The risk free security has zero systematic variance and zero idiosyncratic variance.

It is usually popularly discussed among investors that one should buy assets if the Sharpe ratio is above the CML and sell if the ratio falls below the CML. CML differs from the more popular efficient frontier in that it includes risk-free investments. The efficient frontier is made up of investment portfolios that offer the highest expected return for a specific level of risk.

## Discuss the similarities and differences between the CML and SML as models of the risk-return…

A spot price is simply the market’s current price to buy or sell a commodity for immediate delivery… (e) Portfolios that plot on the CML have some idiosyncratic variance and some systematic variance. Government bonds are usually assumed to be the risk-free security.

Although the research that test validity of CAPM give conflicting results, CAPM is widely used especially in portfolio investments and capital budgeting. In this study, we test validity of the CAPM in Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) by utilizing Fama and McBeth’s (1973) unconditional testing approach. Our results show that there is no meaningful relationship between betas and risk premiums; therefore CAPM is not valid in ISE over the sample period. Since the security market line is a representation of the CAPM, the assumptions for CAPM are also applicable to SML. The most notable factor is CAPM is a one-factor model that is based only on the level of systematic risk the securities are exposed to. (a) The risk free security has zero systematic variance and zero idiosyncratic variance.

The security market line (SML) is a graph that is drawn with the values obtained from the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). It is a theoretical presentation of expected returns of assets that are based on systematic risk. The capital allocation line (CAL) makes up the allotment of risk-free assets and risky portfolios for an investor. CML is a special case of the CAL where the risk portfolio is the market portfolio.

This paper focused on evaluating the performance of more than 15 growth oriented mutual funds of DSE on the basis of monthly returns compared to benchmark returns. Risk adjusted performance measures suggested by Jenson, Treynor, Sharpe and statistical models are employed. It is found that, most of the mutual funds have performed better according to cml and sml Jenson and Treynor measures but not up to the benchmark on the basis of Sharpe ratio. However, very few mutual funds are well diversified and have reduced its unique risk. The growth oriented funds have not performed better in terms of total risk and the funds are not offering advantages of diversification and professionalism to the investors.

SML, which is also called a Characteristic Line, is a graphical representation of the market’s risk and return at a given time. One of the differences between CML and SML, is how the risk factors are measured. While standard deviation is the measure of risk for CML, Beta coefficient determines the risk factors of the SML. The CML measures the risk through standard deviation, or through a total risk factor. On the other hand, the SML measures the risk through beta, which helps to find the security’s risk contribution for the portfolio. While the Capital Market Line graphs define efficient portfolios, the Security Market Line graphs define both efficient and non-efficient portfolios.

- Hence, while all portfolios on the CML are efficient, the CML does not contain all efficient portfolios.
- SML is a graphical representation of the relationship between the expected return and systematic risk of an asset or portfolio.
- The CML measures the risk through standard deviation, or through a total risk factor.
- CML shows the total risk and measures it in terms of the SML (beta or systematic risk).
- The CML determines the risk or return for efficient portfolios, and the SML demonstrates the risk or return for individual stocks.

This will always be a combination of the risk free security and the market (tangent) portfolio. Hence, the CML will intersect the second axis at the risk free rate and go through the market (tangent) portfolio. It is important to note that all portfolios on the CML offer a superior risk-reward profile to any portfolio on the efficient frontier. This is evident when drawn out, since the CML is above or to the left of the efficient frontier at all points (except for the tangent portfolio). On the other hand, SML measures only systematic risk, which is also known as market risk.